Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Seniors- Final Exam Prep

Child Psychology- 646

Miss Albanese

Final Exam Review

The exam will include objective questions, fill-ins, and short essays

Chapters 7-10

Includes text and information from notes

Note: The chapter on language included information from a few chapters- the pages are included on this sheet.

Chapter 12- p. 297-302

Chapter 13- p. 313-317; p. 335-336

Chapter 7

  1. Define learning
  2. Identify the behaviorist, psychometric, and Piagetian approach
  3. Be able to identify the parts and characteristics of the classical conditioning model
  4. Be able to identify the parts and characteristics of the operant conditioning model.
  5. Explain the difference in intelligence testing for infants and preschoolers.
  6. Aspects of infant memory; Rovee-Collier mobile study
  7. Infantile amnesia
  8. What is the correlation of socioeconomic status and IQ?
  9. What is HOME and how does it rate families?
  10. Explain the acceptance of Piaget’s theories
  11. What is early intervention?
  12. What are characteristics of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage?
  13. What is the progression of object permanence throughout the substages?
  14. Describe Piaget’s 6th substage
  15. Identify Pavlov, Skinner, Binet, Vygotsky
  16. Define: Sensorimotor period; Piaget; Schemes; Operations; Circular Reactions; Adaptation; Symbolic Representation; Representational ability; Invisible imitation; Deferred imitation; Object permanence; Habituation; Visual references; Guided participation; cross-modal transfer; violation of expectations
  17. Newer approaches to studying cognitive development—information-processing approach, cognitive neuroscience approach, social-contextual approach
  18. Distinguish between explicit, implicit, and working memory

Language- several chapters

Ch 7 p. 165-174

Ch. 10 p. 246-251

Ch. 13 p. 325-328; 335-336

  1. Define: Prelinguistic speech; linguistic stage; holophrases; telegraphic sentence; babbling; cooing; overextension; underextension; television and language; Chomsky’s Theory; Language acquisition device; code mixing; Fast mapping; Whole language approach; phonics; bilingualism; recasting; word coinage; simultaneous acquisition; emergent literacy; sequential acquisition; overregularization; telegraphic speech; receptive language; naming explosion
  2. At what age do children no longer distinguish between sounds in another language?
  3. Characteristics of parentese
  4. When are children first receptive to language?
  5. Why aren’t a child’s first sentences random?
  6. Characteristics of Genie’s language development
  7. What is the nature-nurture debate of learning language.
  8. Explain what is known about crying in reference to communication.
  9. List behaviors of parents that will help a child develop language.
  10. What are the results of reading to a child?
  11. What is the prognosis of an individual who gets their left hemisphere removed?
  12. Bilingual education, dual-language learning, ESL programs

Chapter 8- Emotional Development in the first few years of life

  1. What have researchers found about infants and emotions?
  2. Is the process of emotional development an orderly one?
  3. List emotions that are present in an 8 month old child.
  4. What is Dr. Izard’s coding system for understanding emotions?
  5. Define: temperament; Easy child; slow to warm up child; difficult child; goodness of fit; stranger anxiety; separation anxiety (when does it occur?)
  6. Results of the Thomas and Chess study
  7. Explain Dr. Kagan’s belief that emotions are biologically linked
  8. Define self-awareness; when does it develop?
  9. What is situational and committed compliance? Name factors that may cause each to develop.
  10. The link between a child’s attachment and their independence.
  11. Tronick study; Spitz study; Freedman study; Greenspan study
  12. What is gender-typing? When is it fostered the most?
  13. Erik Erikson’s first crisis- Basic trust vs mistrust. Why? What virtue?
  14. Second crisis- Autonomy vs. shame and doubt; age? Why? Virtue?
  15. Define attachment; secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized-disoriented
  16. How did Mary Ainsworth set up the strange situation lab?
  17. Define social referencing
  18. Why do the terrible twos occur?
  19. When is sibling rivalry more prevalent?

Chapter 9 & 12

  1. Explain how physical development from 3-6 years differs from infancy.
  2. Gross motor skills vs fine motor skills
  3. What should parents do to encourage a preschooler’s healthy eating habits?
  4. Define transitional object and what researchers have found about children who have them.
  5. Explain the types of motor skills a preschooler has.
  6. What are some health problems of poor children?
  7. What is the youngest age children should be allowed to participate in organized sports?

Chapter 10 and 13

  1. Define: Symbolic function; understanding of identities; classification; Conservation; Understanding of numbers; Irreversibility; Transductive reasoning; Animism; Egocentrism; Centration; Class inclusion; Seriation; Transitive inference; theory of mind; realism; social cognition; map space; action space; zone of proximal development
  2. Characteristics of the preoperational stage
  3. When can children classify by color or shape?
  4. Understanding of 3 concepts of death
  5. Piaget’s 3-mountain task- egocentrism
  6. Seriation experiment: when can children place 10 sticks successfully?
  7. How many principles of counting are there? Stable-order principle; one-to-one principle; partitioning error; coordination error; cardinality principle
  8. What have researchers found about children and development of theory of mind? How does it relate to social cognition?
  9. Understanding of appearance vs reality
  10. What is Project Head Start?
  11. Type of schooling in Japan? Russia? U.S?
  12. Purpose and results of the death in Disney films study?

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