Child Psychology- 646
Final Exam Review
The exam will include objective questions, fill-ins, and short essays
Includes text and information from notes
Note: The chapter on language included information from a few chapters- the pages are included on this sheet.
Chapter 12- p. 297-302
Chapter 13- p. 313-317; p. 335-336
- Define learning
- Identify the behaviorist, psychometric, and Piagetian approach
- Be able to identify the parts and characteristics of the classical conditioning model
- Be able to identify the parts and characteristics of the operant conditioning model.
- Explain the difference in intelligence testing for infants and preschoolers.
- Aspects of infant memory; Rovee-Collier mobile study
- Infantile amnesia
- What is the correlation of socioeconomic status and IQ?
- What is HOME and how does it rate families?
- Explain the acceptance of Piaget’s theories
- What is early intervention?
- What are characteristics of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage?
- What is the progression of object permanence throughout the substages?
- Describe Piaget’s 6th substage
- Identify Pavlov, Skinner, Binet, Vygotsky
- Define: Sensorimotor period; Piaget; Schemes; Operations; Circular Reactions; Adaptation; Symbolic Representation; Representational ability; Invisible imitation; Deferred imitation; Object permanence; Habituation; Visual references; Guided participation; cross-modal transfer; violation of expectations
- Newer approaches to studying cognitive development—information-processing approach, cognitive neuroscience approach, social-contextual approach
- Distinguish between explicit, implicit, and working memory
Language- several chapters
Ch 7 p. 165-174
Ch. 10 p. 246-251
Ch. 13 p. 325-328; 335-336
- Define: Prelinguistic speech; linguistic stage; holophrases; telegraphic sentence; babbling; cooing; overextension; underextension; television and language; Chomsky’s Theory; Language acquisition device; code mixing; Fast mapping; Whole language approach; phonics; bilingualism; recasting; word coinage; simultaneous acquisition; emergent literacy; sequential acquisition; overregularization; telegraphic speech; receptive language; naming explosion
- At what age do children no longer distinguish between sounds in another language?
- Characteristics of parentese
- When are children first receptive to language?
- Why aren’t a child’s first sentences random?
- Characteristics of Genie’s language development
- What is the nature-nurture debate of learning language.
- Explain what is known about crying in reference to communication.
- List behaviors of parents that will help a child develop language.
- What are the results of reading to a child?
- What is the prognosis of an individual who gets their left hemisphere removed?
- Bilingual education, dual-language learning, ESL programs
Chapter 8- Emotional Development in the first few years of life
- What have researchers found about infants and emotions?
- Is the process of emotional development an orderly one?
- List emotions that are present in an 8 month old child.
- What is Dr. Izard’s coding system for understanding emotions?
- Define: temperament; Easy child; slow to warm up child; difficult child; goodness of fit; stranger anxiety; separation anxiety (when does it occur?)
- Results of the Thomas and Chess study
- Explain Dr. Kagan’s belief that emotions are biologically linked
- Define self-awareness; when does it develop?
- What is situational and committed compliance? Name factors that may cause each to develop.
- The link between a child’s attachment and their independence.
- Tronick study; Spitz study; Freedman study; Greenspan study
- What is gender-typing? When is it fostered the most?
- Erik Erikson’s first crisis- Basic trust vs mistrust. Why? What virtue?
- Second crisis- Autonomy vs. shame and doubt; age? Why? Virtue?
- Define attachment; secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized-disoriented
- How did Mary Ainsworth set up the strange situation lab?
- Define social referencing
- Why do the terrible twos occur?
- When is sibling rivalry more prevalent?
Chapter 9 & 12
- Explain how physical development from 3-6 years differs from infancy.
- Gross motor skills vs fine motor skills
- What should parents do to encourage a preschooler’s healthy eating habits?
- Define transitional object and what researchers have found about children who have them.
- Explain the types of motor skills a preschooler has.
- What are some health problems of poor children?
- What is the youngest age children should be allowed to participate in organized sports?
Chapter 10 and 13
- Define: Symbolic function; understanding of identities; classification; Conservation; Understanding of numbers; Irreversibility; Transductive reasoning; Animism; Egocentrism; Centration; Class inclusion; Seriation; Transitive inference; theory of mind; realism; social cognition; map space; action space; zone of proximal development
- Characteristics of the preoperational stage
- When can children classify by color or shape?
- Understanding of 3 concepts of death
- Piaget’s 3-mountain task- egocentrism
- Seriation experiment: when can children place 10 sticks successfully?
- How many principles of counting are there? Stable-order principle; one-to-one principle; partitioning error; coordination error; cardinality principle
- What have researchers found about children and development of theory of mind? How does it relate to social cognition?
- Understanding of appearance vs reality
- What is Project Head Start?
- Type of schooling in Japan? Russia? U.S?
- Purpose and results of the death in Disney films study?