Tuesday, December 1, 2009

Seniors- Development of Infant Senses

The developing brain enables newborn infants to make fairly good sense of what they touch, see, smell, taste, and hear; and their senses develop rapidly in the early months of life.

As a group, you will research one of the senses. Be sure to find out when it starts to develop. Include 25 facts about the infant's development of your particular sense. Also include a link to a newspaper or magazine article about your topic. Your article should be at least 2 pages of print. Your group will receive a classwork grade for your post.

When the all the posts are up on the blog, you must print out the information about all 5 senses, including the articles. This information will be on the chapter 6 test.

Submit your post to the appropriate class color below.


Lindsay Prettyman, Brian O'Hanlin, Janessa Rescigno, Kristy Earley said...


1. Without hearing screening programs for newborns at the hospital, the average age of detection of significant hearing loss is approximately 14 months.

2. Approximately 33 babies are born every day with a significant hearing loss in the United States.

3. Hearing loss among newborns is 20 times more prevalent than phenlyketonuria (PKU), a condition for which all newborns are screened.

4. Studies have shown that when hearing loss is detected later than six months of age, an important time frame for developing speech and language skills has passed. As a result, speech and language development is delayed and academic and social skills may be adversely affected.

5. A newborn (0 to 4 months) usually reacts suddenly to loud sounds through movements such as widening the eyes, jumping or extending the arms and legs. Parents should look for signs of localization from their child. Localization is eye movement or turning the head towards the direction of the sound source.

6. A baby of 3 to 6 months of age should turn and search out a different sound. They should also be able to respond to the sound of their name. During this particular developmental time, the baby will play with sounds by cooing and babbling.

7. A baby of 6 to 10 months of age should be able to seek out the sound source. When his or her name is called, the baby should look towards the speaker. In addition, the baby should respond to both soft and loud sounds. Familiar sounds such as a doorbell ringing or a dog barking should get a response from the baby.

8. A baby or 10 to 15 months plays with sounds and is able to put sounds together in different patterns.

9. A child of 15 to 18 months is able to directly localize to most sounds.

10. The middle ear of a newborn is full of fluid and this impairs hearing to a small extent. Additionally, the entire hearing apparatus is somewhat immature.

11. Newborn babies respond best to high-pitched, exaggerated sounds and voices.

12. Scientists say a baby's ears begin to form around eight weeks in the womb, where they are soothed by the gurgling and rumbling of Mom's stomach.

13. Music is recognized first before words

14. If a mother reads a certain story while the baby is in the womb, after birth the baby will respond better to the story she read

15 Some babies may even recognize their mother's voice as early as week 27.

16. Five to six months after gestation, the fetus will first respond to sounds.

17. The fetus can hear outside the womb as well as the sounds of air going through the mother's stomach and her heartbeat.

18. The fetus hears it's mothers voice better than all of these other sounds because her voice is transmitted through vibrations in her body.

19. Weeks before birth, the fetus will respond to small differences in musical notes and prefer its native language.

20. The results showed the fetus hears everything we do, only 10 decibels less. Their earliest response to sound was at 26 weeks.

21. There are several causes of speech delay in children, including neurological causes, behavioral difficulties, and access to appropriate environmental stimuli.

22. The most common cause of speech delay in children is the persistence of fluid behind the eardrum and the associated hearing loss.

23. Hearing loss can lead to delays in your child’s ability to make sounds, learn to speak, and communicate.

24. By eighteen months of age, most children can say eight to ten words.

25. At ages three, four, and five, a child's vocabulary rapidly increases, and he or she begins to master the rules of language.

EO, MT, JO, LE pink said...

1.) We assume newborns can smell because we know they can taste.
2.) It is first of all through smell that a kid recognizes their mother.
3.) Infants quickly recognize the smell of the food or fruit that they love to eat.
4.) With time infants start recognizing the smell of other family members.
5.) At birth the amniotic fluid odors help infants make the transition from prenatal life into postnatal life.
6.) Experiments show that newborns recognize and or soothed by the smell of amniotic fluid.

7.) Odors from around the mothers nipples are similar to the amniotic fluid and attract the baby to the mother’s breasts
8.) In an experiment researches tested newborns by holding a pad carrying maternal breasts odors seventeen centimeters from the baby’s nose. In response the baby’s wriggled
9.) No two people can smell the same odor the same way
10.) Infants are learning to prefer odors as early as their first day of life
11.) Artificial odors can soothe a young infant, such as lavender
12.) Your baby begins to smell while in the womb
13.) Studies show that babies develop smell way before the other senses
14.) The fetus responds to odors during the last trimester.
15.) According to many experts babies develop their sense of smell early on in order to connect with their mother
16.) Babies can tell the difference between their mothers ‘milk and that of others breast milk from the smell.
17.) The behavioral state of the infant alters responsiveness to an odor.
18.) During the first week of life the infants preference for amniotic fluid wanes and the attraction to maternal odors is potentiated.
19.) For the first two months babies prefer the mothers smell to any other smell.
20.) Preschoolers raised in a home with a heavy drinker can identify alcoholic beverages by smell at a reasonably high rate.
21.) Scented toys can enhance attention.
22.) Odors can reduce stress.
23.) Babies match good smells with good feelings.
24.) With sense of smell in the early stages the child shows that with facial expressions.
25.) The difference between good and foul smell is well recognized by the baby.

Article : http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/378663/your_babys_sense_of_smell_at_different.html?cat=25

Pink Group 4 Taste said...

Group 4: Taste: Brian Knodel, Kristin Dalphon, Alex Papa, Gabrielle Robinson, Miranda Lemon

1. Prenatal studies show that babies develop taste in the womb.
2. Taste buds help them eat safe foods and avoid dangerous foods.
3. Prenatal studies early taste infant might correlate with infant obesity.
4. At 6 months of age babies start eating solid foods.
5. Babies have an affinity for sweet flavors and an aversion to sour flavors.
6. The four different tastes that babies develop are sweet, sour, salty, and bitter.
7. At 6 months babies start picking and choosing preferred foods.
8. Between 6months and two years babies go through the highest levels of development.
9. Newborns are unable to taste salty flavors.
10. Salt receptors on the tongue develop at four months.
11. Babies put nearly everything in their mouths to get a sense of taste on the objects they encounter.
12. The majority of taste buds in a newborns mouth are at the top of the mouth
13. Texture plays a role in baby's developing taste.
14. When in womb, baby's smell and taste amniotic fluid which helps then identify their mother after birth.
15. If things don't taste good, a baby's reflex is to spit it out. This helps with the development of taste.
16. A liking for vegetables is hard to form in children because the sense of taste develops slowly.
17. The smell and taste of cherry does not really have an impact on children till the age of five.
18. Babies have more taste buds in the womb than they will have outside the womb.
19. In the womb, the baby can taste what the mother eats two hours after she eats it.
20. Breast milk is very sweet because babies prefer sweet tastes.
21. To avoid the baby becoming a picky eater, the mother should eat a variety of foods.
22. With age, the taste buds vanish from all of the mouth parts except the tongue.
23. Baby's intake of amniotic fluid alters when the mother eats sweet foods versus bitter and sour foods.
24. The sweet taste of breast milk makes it hard for the baby to stop breastfeeding and eat other foods.
25. Sour is recognized at birth and can be shown by grimaces of both the face and mouth of the baby.


Amanda, Dana, Ben, & Lauren said...

1.Babies can actually die from lack of touch
2.They like the feel of soft fabrics and skin to skin contact
3.Contributes in the cognitive and immunological development of the baby.
4.Increases his or her at tentativeness to the rest of the world.
5. Affects parent-infant attachment
6. The sense of touch helps the other senses develop.
7. Massage is 1 of the best ways to develop a babies sense of touch.
8. Cognitive development, sociability, ability to withstand stress, and immunological development are created through touch.
9. Respond to similar pain as adults do.
10. They receive the sense of touch right from birth.
11. Touch is well developed in infants.
12. Various textures of toys will encourage motor development and prepare for handwriting.
13. Infants who are stroked spend more time making eye contact, smiling, and less crying.
14. Just before the 8th week, of gestation and embryo develops his first sensativity to touch.
15. It starts in the cheek.
16. Studies suggest that the sense of touch enhances the growth and development of the baby and increases his/her attentiveness to the rest of the world, apart from his/her mother.
17. By 32 weeks nearly every part of the body is sensitive to heat, cold,pressure and pain.
18. If your baby is stroked, he/she would spend more time in making eye contact, smile and vocalize, as opposed to when you tickle or poke him/her. That way, you will ensure that your child cries for less time.
19. By the 22nd week the baby is sensitive to temperature.
20. At birth the sense of touch can be observed to be the infants reflexes when it comes in contact with different stimuli.
21. from about 8 weeks the baby starts to use his touch to explore his surroundings and to reassure himself.
22. Touching the baby calms and releases stress.
23. At 9 weeks he can bend his fingers around objects.
24. The 1st trimester the baby touches his lips and cheeks against anything such as the umbilical cord.
25. By week 14 your babies body except his back and the top of his head will be responsive to touch.

Article link:http://www.askamum.co.uk/Pregnancy/Search-Results/Week-by-week/Your-babys-sense-of-touch/

lauren, jill, harrison and alex said...

25 Facts: Infants and Hearing

1. An infants hearing is far more sensitive than an adults.
2. Parents should not yell as it can harm an infants hearing.
3. A newborns response to sound depends on temperment.
4. 1 in 22 infants born in the US have some form of hearing loss.
5. An infants reaction to sound depends on what they hear in the womb.
6. Newborns must have a hearing screening before they leave the hospital.
7. When a baby is born, his or her auditory system is the most strongly developed among all systems.
8. Some infants are born with fluid in the ears, which can slightly obscure hearing.
9. Children with family history of hearing loss are at a higher risk.
10. Babies seem to respond well and can distinguish different voices.
11. It takes an infant a month for hearing to fully mature.
12. 25% of hearing loss cases within infants do not have a genetic cause.
12. During the first month, infants respond best to high-pitched sounds or voices
13. This is why infants respond better to their mother's voice than their father's.
14. Baby hearing losses are located in the outer or middle ear.
15. At 3 months, a child is categorizes sounds.
16. Babies start to hear while still in the womb.
17. At five months, babies will respond to sounds by turing towards them.
18. By five months, infants will recognize their name.
19. Between 3-6 months, babies will usually smile when spoken to.
20. By 6 months of age, a baby will start to imitate sounds.
21. If an infants birth weight is less than 3.3 lbs, it puts them at risk for hearing loss.
22. The inner ear of the baby is fully developed in the womb by 20 weeks.
23. When hearing loss is detected late, language development is already delayed.
24. It is recommended that all audio screening should be conducted by an audiologist.
25. Without a hearing screening, the age of detection for hearing loss is 14 months.

Article link:

SMELL said...

Dominic Fannon, Steph Nally, Tom Valichka, Dani Jacoby- Smell



1. Sense of smell for a baby develops in the womb.
2. Studies have shown that the babies can smell their mother's amniotic fluid.
3. They can differentiate smells (from amniotic fluid, strangers).
4. Identical twins have the same sense of smell.
5. The smell of lavender or aroma of cake makes a child happier.
6. Women are born with and have a stronger sense of smell than men.
7. Smell functions decrease dramatically in men in their mid-fifties.
8. Newborns has a very well developed sense of smell so they're very picky (mother favored).
9. Your sense of smell is least acute in the morning.
10. The average human being is able to recognize approx. 10,000 different odors.
11. Studies show that sense of smell develops before any of the other senses.
12. Total loss of smell is known anosmia (smelling disorder).
13. One's sense of smell is connected to his/her memory.
14. Babies can't distinguish between good smells and bad smells.
15. Sense of taste greatly influences sense of smell.
16. Studies have shown that babies are drawn to the smell of their mom's breast milk even though they have no previous experience with it.
17. Our sense of smell is strongest in the spring and summer.
18. Babies sometimes reject a new milk if it has a different smell.
19. With every breath your sense of smell is at work.
20. Some scientists suspect that the sense of smell develops after birth. (contradicts our other fact).
21. The sense of smell is very important for infant-mother bonding.
22. A German study showed that smell can influence the quality and emotional tone of dreams.
23. The smells are detected in the nose by the specialized receptor cells of the olfactory epithelium.
24. The nasal cavity separates from the month about nine weeks into gestation at which point the chemoreceptors for smelling are formed and ready.
25. By week thirteen of gestation the olfactory system is connected with the brain.
26. In order to develop a baby's senses a mother should explore/promote (take them into the kitchen/places).


Nicole, Marisa, Taylor, Alex, Annie said...

1. Sensory development begins during gestation, about 13-16 weeks, and continues through childhood.
2. At birth infants show a preference for sweet tastes, a combination of sugar with a pacifier has a calming effect on newborns.
3. Babies prefer breast milk or formulas that are sweet in taste.
4. Babies spit out anything that does not taste good immediately.
5. Infants do not like things that have a sour flavor to them.
6. The four types of taste that infants need to develop sweet, sour, bitter, and salty.
7. It may take as many as 20 trials to develop a taste for a particular thing in a baby.
8. Children usually do not show a preference for salt until 4 months.
9. What the mother eats during pregnancy can persuade what tastes the baby likes outside of the womb.
10. Taste is the most overlooked sense in infant development.
11. Babies have taste buds located on the top of the mouth, tongue, and back of the throat.
12. Early exposure to different flavors creates eating patterns that may last into childhood and beyond.
13. Pediatrician says the appropriate time to introduce new flavors in a baby’s diet is 9-10 months of age.
14. Experience of diverse flavors forms a life-long healthy eating habit and expands children’s minds.
15. Because infants like sweeter flavors, it is sometimes easier to start them on the sweeter vegetables like carrots or sweet potatoes.
16. With age, the taste buds slowly happen to vanish from the remaining mouth parts except the tongue.
17. The first thing a baby tastes is the amniotic fluid in the womb.
18. The baby’s saliva present in the mouth helps in the breaking of food and causes the receptor cells to send messages to the brain.
19. It has also been noticed that babies taste the food by seeing the texture. Some attractive colors and textures attract the taste gland too.
20. It is advisable to look at the baby’s face when feeding him or her to learn his or her liking or disliking for a particular food.
21. Babies have more taste buds than adults, who have 10,000 themselves.
22. Nursing infants sometimes refuse to nurse when they taste garlic or heavy spices in mom’s breast milk.
23. The sense of taste develops rapidly.
24. In research studies, 2-week old babies have shown through their sucking behavior that they can taste the differences between water, sour liquids, sugar solutions, salt solutions, and milk.
25. Taste is the weakest of the five senses.


Hearing said...

Laura Mullin, Amanda Mouser, Kelsie Pike, Rion O’Connell, Theresa Cahill
Infant Hearing
1. A baby’s hearing can detect external sounds during the second trimester
2. Hearing is improving and will be able to hear a voice at 19 weeks of the pregnancy.
3. A baby will only react to sounds that are in front of it until 3 months of age.
4. By 6-12 months, a baby can hear sound from behind.
5. A baby prefers to hear high pitched and slow noises, although hearing is already well-developed.
6. Babies can be screened by tests for hearing loss before they're taken home.
7. The average age for hearing loss in infant is approximately 14 months.
8.The later hearing loss is detected, language development becomes more delayed.
9. Babies start associating sounds with experiences and give them a meaning.
10. Different sounds create different emotions from a baby.
11.Musical toys are important to the hearing development of a child.
12. Some causes for infant hearing loss are family history or heredity, in utero infections, Apgar scores of 0-4 at 1 minute or 0-6 at 5 minutes and mechanical ventilation lasting 5 days or longer.
13. Prenatal damage to the cochlear may be due to the partial or lack of inner ear development.
14. Some disorders causing hearing loss at birth are anoxia, low birth weight, high forceps delivery and violent uterine contractions.
15. A newborn (0 to 4 months) usually reacts suddenly to loud sounds through movements such as widening the eyes, jumping or extending the arms and legs.
16. A baby of 3 to 6 months of age should turn and search out a different sound, respond to the sound of their name, play with sounds by cooing and babbling, smile or stop crying when either of the parents speaks to him/her, and act differently to the ways the parents talk to him/her.
17. A baby of 6 to 10 months of age should be able to look towards the speaker when their name is called, respond to both soft and loud sounds and pay attention when the parents talk to him/her.
18. A baby or 10 to 15 months will begin to increase his or her babbling and begin to more closely resemble speech.
19. A child of 15 to 18 months is able to understand simple phrases, identify familiar objects such as body parts, follow simple direction and have an expressive vocabulary of 20 or more words and short phrases.
20. Babies' hearing is more sensitive than adults'.
21. Every day, 33 babies are born in the United States with permanent hearing loss. With 3 of every 1,000 newborns having a hearing loss, it is the most frequently occurring birth defect.
22. When early identification and intervention occurs, hearing impaired children make dramatic progress, are more successful in school, and become more productive members of society.
23. Research has confirmed that treatment has the best results when infant hearing loss is identified and intervention is begins before the child reaches six months of age.
24. Most children with hearing loss can hear some speech, however, the speech tends to lack clarity since the hearing loss occurs in the higher frequencies that contain most of the consonant and vowel sounds necessary for understanding speech.
25. Nearly 50% of newborns with hearing loss are not diagnosed until at least 2 years of age.

Article: http://www.parents.com/baby/health/ears/listen-to-this/