Sunday, March 16, 2008

Blue Class

Submit your answers here...


Anonymous said...

Amanda and Erin

E. Tronick Study
1. They observed a mother and child interacting. And then recorded how the child reacted when the mother was unresponsive to it.
2. Emotional dialogue enables the infant to begin to control its emotions and the parent figures out how much stimulation the child needs. The dialogue is synchronized. If the mother is unresponsive the child looks away, disengages, notices that something is wrong and eventually loses bodily control. Children who live with severely/chronically depressed mothers develop a pattern of being disengaged.
3. It shows an association between the mother's emotions and her child's emotions.

J. Kagan Study
1. Kagan and his fellow researchers observed children playing to see if some had a natural tendency to be either shy or outgoing. They wanted to determine if shyness is inborn or learned.
2. Kagan's basic premise was that temperament is inborn, but can be changed; "biology is not destiny." About 10-15% of children are born with an inborn nature to be either shy or outgoing. According Kagan and other researchers, mood, activity level, and emotional intensity seem to have a biological basis.
3. It is significant because it stops parents from blaming themselves if they have a child who is naturally shy. It shows that temperament is affected by biological factors.

Dr. M. Lewis Study
1. They put rouge on the noses of different age babies to see if they would be able to recognize themselves and be able to express social emotions.
2. At sixteen months, the child did not recognize itself and showed no embarrassment. By 18 months, the child recognized itself, touched its nose, and showed embarrassment. The results showed that children develop social emotions and get a feel for others' emotions by 18 months.
3. It shows that children can recognize others' emotions as well as their own at a very young age. It also proves that they develop sympathy and empathy early.

Anonymous said...

Neil Gutherman
Jennifer Cichocki

1. The setup of the study was that a mother and a child were communicating through emotional dialog. The baby responds well to the mother's positive attention. Then, when the baby tried to solicit a positive response from the mother, the mother remained unresponsive to the child. The purpose of this is to show the importance of emotional dialog between the mother and the child and the way in which a mother can pass her emotions onto her child.

2. -Emotional dialog consists of the mother smiling and cooing at the baby and the baby responding with smiles and laughter.
-If the mother is unresponsive, the child disengages and starts losing control of their bodily functions. They may start hiccuping, drooling, frowning, and losing eye contact.
-If this continues, the pattern of disengagement may lead to depression or poor emotional, cognitive, and social development.
3. The study is significant to the emotional development of children in that it demonstrates the need children have for emotional communication and bonding with their parents. It shows the negative effects the absence of this communication may have on a child.

1. Visual cliff - a baby is placed on a piece of glass painted on one side, clear on the other to mimic a drop off. The purpose of this study is to see if the fear of heights is innate in children. It is also meant to see if parents can play a role in the child's decision or fear.

2. -The child shows no innate fear of heights when they have just begun to crawl. After one month of crawling, the baby begins to show signs of having a fear of heights.
-The roles parents play are showing facial expressions like smiling and urging the child to move forward. They may also show facial expressions of fear or disapproval which cause the child to not cross over the visual cliff.
3. The significance of this is that children learn to read others' emotions by judging their facial expressions and act accordingly.

1. The rouged-nose study was set up by having the child look in the mirror without makeup on their face and seeing if they can recognize themselves. Then, red rouge is put on the child's nose and they are again set in front of the mirror. This is to see if the child is embarrassed by their own reflection or if they touch their nose, showing they understand.
2. -At 16 months, the child did not recognize themselves and, in turn, was not embarrassed by their reflection. At 18 months, the children show self-recognition by smiling and looking away, embarrassed.
3. The significance of this study is that it shows that at18 months, children hit a milestone where they are now able to show pride, empathy, shame, and other social emotions.

Anonymous said...

Doris Crumlish and Helen Turkel

1. E. Tronick

a. Mother and child were communicating and then the mother was told not to respond to the child. The child became distressed and detached--lost body control and cried.
b. Emotional dialog between parent and child is supposed to be two way and engaging. It should be like a perfectly balanced dance.

If the mother is unresponsive to the child, he becomes distressed and upset.

The child of a depressed mother is likely to be detached and have behavior problems.

c. This study is significant to emotional development because it shows that a child in an environment where his parents are unresponsive and not emotionally available can be very detrimental to the child's emotional health.

2. Dr. C. Izard

a. Children were shown three-dimensional faces with different features. The reactions to the faces differed depending on which emotions the facial features represented.

b. Dr. Izard believed that emotions are shown through facial expressions and children display these expressions naturally.

Izard's coding system was a chart of seven distinct facial expressions that are universal.

Fear, anger, interest, joy, sadness, discomfort.

C. This study was significant because it showed that children naturally express feelings in order to communicate with adults and influence their environment. It also showed that children are aware of their emotions and the emotions of others.

3. Visual Cliff

a. Children were placed on a glass surface to give the appearance of a sudden drop. It was used to test a child's innate ability to sense danger.

b. When the child first learns to crawl there is no fear of heights- the child is not aware of the apparent danger. After a month of crawling, a fear of height develops and the child becomes aware of the danger.

Parents can play a role in preventing or encouraging whether or not the child crossed the glass. If the mother looked worried, the child was apprehensive. If the mother clapped and called for the child, he was scared at first but eventually crossed the glass.

c. This study was significant because it proved that children develop fears of dangerous situations, but are also greatly influenced by what they learn from their parents.

Anonymous said...

Brigid McIntyre and Shannon Mossman

E. Tronick
1. The mother engages in conversation and stimulation with the baby to see the effects of emotional dialogue between caregiver and child.
2. #1. initiated bond of mutual expectation and trust, enables infant to be able to control emotions, much like a dance
#2. baby disengages and looks away then tries to engage mother again and if she is unresponsive the child will start drooling hiccuping and crying
#3. the infants become disengaged all the time
3. this study is important to a child's emotional development because the relationship a child has with a caregiver greatly affects their development.

Visual Cliff
1. took children of different ages and placed them on one side of a visual cliff and had their parent on the opposite side so they had to cross the "cliff" to reach their parent. parents called to their children to see if they would cross. the purpose was to judge whether or not fear of heights was innate in children.
2. #14. when just beginning to crawl- child shows no fear and crosses the cliff
after a month- fear of heights has developed
#15. if parent looks afraid- child was hesitant and would not crawl
if parent smiled- baby turned around to try to step down to continue to cross and was at ease.
3. study shows the trust that develops between a parent and child, as well as the development of a fear of heights

Dr. M Lewis
1. took children of different ages and put rouge on their noses and placed them in front of a mirror. the purpose was to see if the child would recognize themselves and if they did, if they would get embarrassed about their appearance.
2. #16. purpose- if child recognized self, 16 months- didn't recognize self and no sense of embarrassment, 18 months- child recognized self and showed signs of embarrassment
#17. displaces child's development of social emotions and sense of self
3. it shows when a child develops a sense of self which in turn is when a child develops social emotions and is able to have a sense of others' emotions (ex can show sympathy and empathy).

Anonymous said...

Rogers & Rinschler
E. Tronick Study
1. In E. Tronick's study they watched the dialogue between mother and child. The baby sat in its little chair thing and the mother interacted with it. The researchers observing looked to see what the baby's response was. Then they told the mom not to smile at the baby and recorded the baby's response. The purpose was to see what happened when babies lived with depressed mothers.
2. The characteristics of the emotional dialogue are the babies let parents know how much outside stimulation they want. Babies look away to disengage dialogue and smile to engage dialogue.
When the mother is unresponsive the baby loses body control and starts to drool and hiccup.
This implies that infants experience those bad symptoms on a regular basis and they become disengaged from the mother b/c she's depressed.
3. It's an important study because it implies babies need attention and happy mothers.

Visual Cliff
1. They set up a glass ledge and put the mother on the other side of the "visual cliff". The purpose was to see if the babies had a sense of depth perception and if they could read their mother's facial expressions.
2. Infants who can't crawl cross without fear and those who have been crawling for 1 month won't cross. The biological shift now shows fear.
Parents play a big role. If they put on a "fear" face, the baby stays back. If they smile the baby will cross the cliff.
3. It is good because it builds a stronger relationship with the parents. Babies learn to read their parents facial expressions and listen to them.

J. Kagan
1. The set up of the study had three children in a room with a ton of toys and their mothers sat in the room with them. The children were free to do whatever they wanted. The purpose was to see if they were shy or outgoing.
2.Her basis premise is "biology is not destiny".
Cautious children watch the other children play and the other children play with the toys. The differences are an outward manifestation of inborn temperament. 10-15% are born shy or outgoing.
The three areas are mood, activity level, and emotional intensity.
3. It's important because not all children are born the same and need to be treated according to their temperament, at least in the beginning.

Anonymous said...

Kylie Wheelock
Winston Young

E. Tronick
1.) A baby and a mother interact in an emotional dialogue. It studied the effects of an unresponsive mother to a child.

2.) 1. Child is imitating the emotions expressed on the mother's face. The baby has too much stimulation from the mother's face and disengages, and when the baby is ready, he/she engages again.
2. The baby disengages, stares at his hands, drools, hiccups and starts crying. The baby is out of sync with its body.
3. The child develops a pattern of disengaging with its mother.

3.) It shows what happens when a parent is unresponsive to their child's emotional needs and this can be used for interventions if said parent is unresponsive.

Dr. C. Izard
1.) Different masks are shown to the children and their facial expressions are recorded to study which type of emotional reaction goes with which facial expression.

2.) 8. Emotions are communicated by facial expressions.
9. He divided the classification of different facial expressions by examining the eyebrows, mouth and eyes.
10. Sadness, anger, joy, disgust, surprise, fear, interest.

3.) It shows how children respond to different emotional expressions by others and imitate them.

Dr. M. Lewis
1.) Rouge was wiped onto the nose of the children and the children were placed in front of the mirror. This experiment was done to study the development of the child's perception of self when seeing themselves in front of the mirror.

2.) 16. The purpose was described in above answer. The results:
16 months- doesn't recognize self in mirror, not embarrassed.
18 months- can recognize self in mirror, smile, turn their heads away from the mirror and show embarrassment.

17. It shows that the child can feel guilt, empathy, pride ans sympathy.

3.) The significance was already stated in above answer.

Anonymous said...

allie and lisa

E. Tronick

1. The set up was a mother and a her child were left alone in a room to interact.The mother provides stimulation to the baby. the purpose was to portray the "dance" between a mother and her child. This dance represents how a mother and a baby interact with each other. This interaction can leave the baby with emotional development problems if this "dance" is not in sync.

2. a.)The mothers comes close to the baby because this provides a lot of stimulation and gets the baby's attention. The baby then looks away to disengage because he or she may not be able to handle this stimulation. They are in a perfect "dance" in sync with each other. This "dance is characteristic of most human interaction.
b.)If the mother is unresponsive to child the baby will disengage and look away. then attempt again to get her attention. When this fails, the baby begins to show physical symptons of distress. such as, drooling, tonguing, hicupping, and crying.
c.) if the child experiences this on a regular basis they will develope a pattern of disengaging. This will effect future relationships and emotional development throughout their lives.

3. We think this study is important to the study of the emotional development of children because it helps explain of environment plays a large part in the person you are to become.

Visual Cliff

1. The set up is one side of the plexiglass is painted and the other is transparent to create an illusion of a drop. the purpose is to help identify if the perception of depth is innate or learned, and at what age this fear sets in.

2. a.) When the child is just beginning to crawl they do not fear the cliff, but at one month they do. The fear of heights has developed because of experience and a biological switch that occurs.
b.) If the mother smiles the baby will cross, and if the mother appears scared the baby will hesitate and decide not to cross.

3. This study is significant because it shows how a child relies on their parents response to help distinguish between what is right and wrong.

Dr. M Lewis

1. The set up is the child puts rouge on the child's nose and points him to a mirror, to see if he recognizes himself. The purpose is to test at what age a child begins to develop social emotions.

2. a.) At sixteen months the child doesn't recognize himself and shows no sign of embarrassment. At eighteen months the child recognizes himself and shows embarrassment.
b.) It allows the child to feel guilt or ashamed and they develop their social emotions.

3. This study is important because the child it shows the cognitive realization of different emotions. That they child will use socially throughout their lives.

Anonymous said...

Sarah Frydrych
E. Tronick
1. The set up of the study that was conducted was observing the interactions of a mother and her child. The purpose was to determine if a child needs interaction with an adult in order to develop emotionally.
2. 1. When the mother is close to the baby there is a lot of stimulation so the baby will turn away to stop the stimulation and disengage. Then, the baby will turn back and smile, and the mom will come back and smile or wave her hand, then the baby will once again turn away, forming a "dance" between the two. 2. If the mother is unresponsive the child disengages and looks away, then tries to reengage once again. If the mother continues to be unresponsive then the baby will begin to drool and hiccup and seem to lose bodily control which did not occur previously. 3. If a baby were with a mother who was depressed the child would have been experiencing unresponsiveness on a regular basis and would have developed a pattern of disengagement.
3. I think that this is important because it shows that a child needs to have stimulation with an adult in order to learn how to interact with people in the future.

J. Kagan
1. The set up of this observation was three children were put in a room with their mothers and a bunch of toys. The researchers observed if the children would go and play with the toys, or if they would just look at the other children. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was an inborn drive toward timidness and shyness or outgoing.
2. 11. Temperamental development ins an outward manifestation of an inborn drive, but "biology is not destiny". 12. Cautious child looks at others while outgoing child was occupied with own self and 10 to 15 percent born as more cautious or more outgoing. 13. Three areas are mood, activity level, and emotional intensity.
3. I think that this study is important to the emotional development of children because it is important for parents to understand that some children may be outgoing or shy, and that they should not be forced into situations that they are not comfortable in, and that there is nothing wrong with being quiet or louder.

Visual Cliff
1. This experiment was set up by creating a box for the child to crawl across, and within this creating a "step" that is covered by plexiglass, so that the child could think that there is a drop when there is not. The purpose of this was to determine when a child develops depth perception and fear of heights.
2. 14. When the child is just beginning to crawl the child crosses unafraid (not innate fear of heights). At one month will not cross, showing a fear of heights has developed. 15. If the mother smiles at the baby, it will cross. But, if the mother looks fearful then the baby will not cross. If the mother smiles at the baby after looking fearful, then the baby will then cross.
3. I think that this study is significant to the emotional development of children because it shows that a child can recognize emotion in their parents, and determine what to do in a situation based on that emotion.

Anonymous said...

Lisa H & Jess P.

1. Describe the set-up and purpose of the study that was conducted. - 3 points

Tronick Study -- emotional dialogue between the mother and child. It informs the parents how much stimulation the child can handle in order to form a bond of mutual expectation. The purpose was to see what would happen to children with severely depressed mothers. The set-up involved one-on-one studies with the mother and child's interactions.

Spitz -- The purpose was to find what the effects of abuse and neglect were on the child. Found this by looking at infants that were institutionalized while the mother was in jail.

Izard -- They showed different faces and saw how the child reacted to them. The purpose was to see how emotions are innate and universal even in young children.

2. Give the answers to the questions on your sheet related to the chosen study. - 4 points

1. The characteristics the overwhelmed child disengages with mother. There is a back and forth between the stimulation the mother gives and how the child responds.
2. The child tries to engage with mother by smiling. But when they see it is not working the child starts to disengage. After a period of time of unresponsive mother, baby looses its bodily control and starts drooling, hiccuping, tongueing.
3. Implications of the child developed a pattern of being disengages with the mother. Same physical signs as number 2.

4. They found that children that were institutionalized they were apathetic, cried more, lack of weight, and could even die from the lack of engagement with their caretaker. They did not receive any emotional availability/ attention from the care giver.
5. The info shows the epidemic child abuse and neglect and the negative effects on the child. It teaches psychians when treating children, what to look for to see if the child is being neglected. It shows that the child needs an emotional connection with the parent in order to do well.

8. His basic premise about emotions is all human problems involve emotions, feelings shown on face are innate and universal.
9.The coding system divides the face in 3 different parts the eyebrows, the corners of eyes, shape of mouth, and corners of mouth
10. Distress, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, fear, and interest.

3. Explain why you think the study is significant to the emotional development of children. - 3 points.

This show the negative effects of a depressed mother has on the child. It also shows how different the amounts of stimulation a child can handle.

Because it shows that children cannot grow emotionally well by themselves. They need emotional interaction with others in order to grow. Also because now people know what to look for and shows if a child is being neglected, this way a child can start to receive treatment and be taken into a better environment sooner.

It helps parents better identify their child's emotions in order to respond properly. It is important because it shows how children are not emotionless; they feel things too.

Anonymous said...

Melissa Ohler
1. The purpose of the study was to prove that emotionally distraught and mothers of children that are very distant or depressed have negative effects on the child's mental well being. In the study E. Tronick, the baby was had physical effects to it's mother not responding with a smile to his actions. The baby began to spit up and hiccup which showed unhealthy effects to a simple experiment of the mother not responding, which only shows that over a long period of time these effects can worsen.

2.To the case of what implications would an unresponsive or depressed mother have on a child living with these mixed emotions everyday the child slowly disengages. Over awhile the child has an overall weak connection with their mother's causing hem to be disconnected and poor cognitive and physical development. In sever cases children are under weight and under developed.

3. This study is significant because is arouses a lot of questions because if a young child reacts so aversive to as simple of neglect as not smiling back at the child, then what deep rooted problems can occur if this happens on a daily basis.

1. In the case of the visual cliff children at young ages or at the beginning of crawling have no depth perception and will walk across with no fear but as soon as only a few months after they start crawling the children have fear and will hesitate to walk across.

2. Children when the first started crawling would walk across the visual cliff with no second thoughts when coaxed to go across. However only a few months after they started crawling then they had this instilled fear to not walk across. Once reassured by their mothers face to go across the child still went about walking across backwards in a safe manor because the fear and danger of getting injured was so instilled and could not be completely over ruled by their mothers facial expression.

3. The significance of this study shows the natural instinct to have fear of heights at a more mature age even when the fear is trying to be over ruled by their mothers reassuring facial expressions. Even thought a mothers reaction t a situation has a big contribution to the child's decisions, it still is not the only driving factor in keeping children safe. This can be reassuring that when a child goes to make a decision at a later age they will be able to go about it somewhat safely if their mother is not present to assess the situation.

1. In Dr. M. Lewis's study of self recognition the child had rouge put on their noses and depending o the child's age, it determined whether or not the child would recognize it was their nose that was effected.The purpose of the study was to see what ages children would recognize themselves in the mirror.

2. At16 months the child did not recognize themselves in the mirror and rather acted as if the image was not their own but another child. However only two months later a different child was mature enough and had reached a stage were they were able to noticed it was their nose that was changed with the rouge and then had the reaction of embarrassment to the situation.

3. This case is significant because once a child has reached a level of maturity that they can recognize themselves they can further work on independently and approach situation with caution or distress if they noticed themselves in a mirror as something different or wrong with their image. Like with the visual cliff study this is beneficial in that the child can begin to go about situations without their mothers present all the time.

Anonymous said...

Choose any 3 research studies about emotional development and answer these 3 questions for each study.
1. Describe the set-up and purpose of the study that was conducted. - 3 points
2. Give the answers to the questions on your sheet related to the chosen study. - 4 points
3. Explain why you think the study is significant to the emotional development of children. - 3 points.

-Tronick Study
1. The purpose of this study was to see what the consequences of a disengaged mother would be towards her child. In the lab, they had a mother and child interact regularly. Then, the mother purposefully stopped smiling and playing with the child. The results were observed.
2. 1)Emotions come first before learning. Enables the baby to learn and teaches the parents how much stimulation a baby can handle. Emotions are in sync with each other which is the called the "perfect dance" when it gets out of sync, the babies smile and the mothers smile back. This creates a major bond.
2) babies disengage, then comfort themselves, start drooling and displaying other bodily functions that were not present before.
3)This would imply that mothers who were severely depressed have infants who always feel disengaged from her. This develops a pattern.
3. This is important because it shows what would happen to a baby who lives with a depressed mother. It helps give evidence to why some babies develop differently as a result of the environment they are provided with.

-Visual Cliff
1.The purpose of this was to find what age children being to exhibit fear as a result of heights and to see of fear of heights is innate. Babies were put on a visual cliff and were lured by their moms on the other side, sometimes with happy expressions and sometimes with scared expressions. The results were recorded.
2. 14) Just beginning to crawl, no fear displayed. After crawling for a month, fear was displayed, biological switch was made.
15)When the mom looked scared the baby would not cross. When the mom smiled the baby would cross over the cliff. This helps children read their parents fear.
3. This is important because it tells us when children begin to learn dangers in life. It is much safer to turn away from a child who has been crawling for a while than turning away from a baby who just learned to crawl. The dangers of injury are much more heightened for those who just began to crawl.

--Dr. M Lewis
1. The purpose of this experiment was to see when a child can recognize themselves and display characteristics of embarrassment. Children had rouge put on their faces and then were provided with a mirror to see themselves. If they turned and smiled they displayed embarrassment if they didnt then they werent embarrassed. Results were recorded.
2. 16) 16 months- did not recognize self, shows no embarrassment. 18 months- recognized self and embarrassed.
17)Shows sympathy and social emotions can develop. Shows that at 18 months, they can recognize themselves and display embarrassment. They can also now show sympathy for other people.
3. This is important because it reveals the age in which children can feel bad for others and know who they are and what their emotions are.

-Alex Bakerian + Lexi Hall