Kendrick McCann and Dave Parag.Study 1: R. SpitzSpitz went into an institution for children of imprisoned women. He brought national awareness to the pain and grief that the children experienced. He observed facial expressions and found a universal expression for grief. It showed that children were capable of feeling grief from the separation and that they communicated these feelings using the face. The study is significant because it allows us to better understand what young children are saying. Could lead to early identification and intervention in cases of abuse.Study 2: Visual CliffThe visual cliff experiment involved a table covered in plexiglass, one half of the table appeared to be several feet lower than the other. Children were placed on the table and took visual cues from parents faces as to whether crossing the gap was safe or not. The study showed that kids are born with an innate sense of depth perception, but do not develop a fear of heights until they have been crawling for about a month. The child also changed their reaction to the drop based on the parents facial expression. This study showed that parents can influence their child's actions based on their responses to a situation.Study 3: Dr. M. LewisExperimenters put a spot of rouge on the nose of a child then placed it in front of a mirror. Children who developed a sense of self would show embarrassment after seeing themselves in the mirror. The study found that kids from ages 18 months on had developed a sense of self and showed embarrassment when they looked in the mirror. Kids below 16 months of age showed no embarrassment because they had no sense of self. This study showed that kids develop a sense of self and social emotions like embarrassment at age 18 months.
KELLY AND JACKIE =) TRONICK STUDY1. This study involved a mother and a baby first she was told to play with the child and she was told to be unresponsive to the child.2.When the mother was unresponsive the baby started to disengaged himself and started to lose his bodily control for example, drooling and turning away.3. They looked for patterns of being disengaged from their mothers and how a depressed mother affected the child.R. SPITZ STUDY1. He took kids whose mothers are in prison and studied how they reacted to being seperated and disengaged from their mothers.2. The study showed that these children lost weight, cried continously, and looked horrifingly sad.3. This was used to tell if there was child abuse going on in certain homes and how to look at a childs face expressions to figure out their emotions.VISUAL CLIFF1. There was a set up of a table with plexy glass attached to it to portray there being a drop off the table. The children were set on the table and told to crawl to their mothers on the other side of the plexy glass. 2.This showed that when babies first start to crawl they have no fear of hieghts and when they have been crawling for a while they first look to their mothers expression to see if its safe to cross and they are very hesitant.3. The findings of this study showed at what age babies can understand someone elses emotions.
Kristen RehbachMichele AbasoloStudy 1: E. Tronick1. Tronick placed a baby and a mother in a room. The mother was told to become unresponsive to the child in order to observe the child's behavior. The study was performed in order to estimate what would happen if a child lived in these types of circumstances, i.e. unresponsive or depressed mother.2. The baby lost all bodily control, and fussed more than usual. The baby disengaged from mother, and tried to gain her attention again, until the child's whole body was unregulated.3. The study showed that children growing up in this environment will become continually disengaged and apathetic. A child needs a warm environment with a responsive mother in order to emotionally develop well.Study 2: Dr. C. Izard1. Dr. Izard placed a child in a room and showed a variety of pictures in order to observe the facial expressions of the child. The purpose of this experiment was to understand if the faces they made were innate reactions. It also served to understand the different faces that children make.2. Facial expressions were said to be the window of emotion. His coding system, at 7 months, was with lifting eyebrows when interested, and squinting eyes when angry. Seven emotions were found to be coded.3. Parents can benefit from this type of coding in order to better understand what their child wants or needs. Study 3: Visual Cliff1. Babies were placed on a table, with a clear glass top made to look like a ledge. The mother would look at the child with different facial expressions in order to let the baby know if s/he should stay still or continue crawling. The purpose of this experiment was to find out if the fear of heights was innate or learned.2. Fear of heights was proven to not be innate. When the child is just beginning to crawl they showed no fear of heights, but after 1 month of crawling, they were unsure about trying to cross the "cliff". Mothers facial expressions were powerful tools. When a baby was just beginning to crawl, and the mother seemed afraid, the baby did not continue across. But when the mother appeared happy, they continued towards their mother.3. This study showed how intense the mother can influence the child at such a young age. It also showed psychologists that children can decipher facial expressions and that the fear of heights is learned.
Amanda & Kelsey E. Tronick1. The mother interacted with her baby then they told her to stop responding and just stare at the baby. The purpose of this study is to see if a child with a severly depressed mother will suffer emotional problems.2. They found that when the mom responded to the baby, the baby was happy and smiling but when she looks away & disengages the baby started to drool & lose control of body, it also began to cry.3. If a childs mother is severly depressed and doesnt pay any attention to the child, the child will suffer emotional problems. It is important that their mother engages with their baby.Visual Cliff1. They set up an apparatus designed to see if the child had depth perception. When the child crawled across the clear glass it looked like a drop, it determined to see at what ages children would cross without any fear or cross with hesitation.2. When the child first started to crawl they crossed without any fear showing that the fear of heights is not innate. After the child has been crawling for 1 month, a fear of heights is developed and they act afraid to cross. Some children look at their mother to see if it is safe to cross or not. When their mother was happy they crossed but when their mother showed fear they hesistated.3. By looking at their mothers expression they can tell whether something is safe or if they are in danger.Dr. M Lewis1. They had the child look at themselves in the mirror without the rouge on their nose. Then applied rouge on their nose and had them look in the mirror again to see if they were able to recognize themselves or show embarassment.2. At 16 months the children couldnt recognize themselves and werent embarassed. At 18 months the children avoided looking at themselves with the rouge and they were embarassed.3. It shows the childrens social emotions, their empathetic feelings, can feel guilty or shamed. It shows their development of social identity.
Study 1: E Tronick1. A mother with her child, produces no emotional response when a child smiles, makes a facial expression, or illicits any change in feeling whatsoever, is predicted to create an uncomfortable atmostphere for the child and they look away, often losing control of their motor functions.2. From this study, Tronick found that chlidren whose mothers had no emotional response at all, seemed significantly more depressed and showed this depression in their facial expressions, and alertness.3. This study is significant for the emotional development of children because it often is used to discover if a child is being abused or not, as a test to see if the child has been neglected in their recent, or earlier years. If a child has been neglected, they will have less emotion in their expressions and disposition.Study 2: M Lewis1. A child is presented to him/herself in front of the mirror. This study's purpose is to test if a child has a sense of self recognition. The child is re-presented with a spot of rouge on its nose, and if he or she shy's away and shows signs of embarrasment, then the child does indeed have a sense of self recognition. If not, then this trait is absent.2. The findings from this study showed that children from 16 months and before have no signs of self recognition. Also, the study showed that from 18 months on, children have their self recognition intact and they remember what they are supposed to look like.3. This study is significant to the emotional development of children, because it is closely linked with object permanence. If a child can remember an object without seeing it, then he or she should be able to remember what he or she looks like.Study 3: Visual Cliff1. A child is presented with a clear table, but under it is different levels of base underneath. The study is to see if the child will venture out onto the part of the clear table that has a steeper base underneath it. This study is to prove whether or not the fear of heights is inate or acquired by nature.2. The findings of this study show that a child who has just learned to crawl will indeed travel out onto the open clear table that shows a visual cliff. The study also shows that a child who has been crawling for a month will not cross the cliff, due to their sense of depth perception. Another factor that was tested was a mother's or parents appearance. If a parent's expression shows approval of the situation, even a cihld who has been crawling for a month can be persuaded to cross onto the visual cliff. This proves that a parent's appearance does in fact influence a child's decision to explore a situation.3. This study is significant to the development of children because it shows that a child who has not acquired a sense of depth will crawl out onto something that could, if an actual cliff, be dangerous. A child that has just started crawling perhaps has not experienced falling. This absence of fear may be a factor that influences their likelihood to enter a potentially dangerous situation
Lindsey WalshE.Tronick1. A mother and her baby were put in a room. First the mother would be engaged emotionally with the child. But then she was asked to just sit and ignore her child to see what type of behavior the baby displays. This experiment was done to see what would happen if this was a real life environment.2. The study found that the child becomes disengaged with the the mother when she ignores the child. The child begins to lose bodily control and starts to drool, hiccup, etc.3. This study is significant because it shows what could happen if this was a real life situation. It also showed how a depressed mother could affect a child.Visual Cliff1. A child was placed on a table where one half of it was plexiglass.Parents of the child either acted scared or happy to see whether or not the child would cross.2. This study showed that when a child begins to crawl it is not afraid to cross, but after it has been crawling for a month it has a fear of heights. Also, if the mother looks afraid the child would not cross but if the mother looked happy the child would cross.3. This study is significant because it shows that actions of the child are influenced by their parents. It also shows at what age children have a fear of heights.Dr. M Lewis1. A spot of rouge was placed on a child's nose. Then the child was asked to look in the mirror. This was to see if the child was embarrassed or not.2. This study found that at 16 months the child cannot recognize themselves so therefore they were not embarrassed. However, a child of 18 months had developed a sense of self so they did display embarrassment.3. This study is significant because it shows when children begin to recognize themselves. It now allows the child to interact with the social environment and the child can recognize when others are upset/embarrassed.
Court and Chels1. E. TronickThis study included the relationship between a mother and her child, including extreme conditions like depression. The infant was placed in a rocker while the mother expressed different emotions. The first emotion was an abundance of smiling, laughter and caressing the baby. The baby showed signs of happiness however, when the stimulus got too much, the infant disengaged slightly from the mother. Then in the second part of the study, the mother was told to make no facial expressions or emotions at all toward the baby, to mock the behavior of depressed mothers. The baby tried to counter this emotion by smiling at first, however when it was evident that the mother wasn’t making any smile, the baby began to drool, and become disengaged and fidgety. The study proved that the mothers emotion around a child can affect how the child acts. If depression goes on for long periods of time the infant may even become severely depressed at a young age and possibly not know how to have a loving relationship.2. R. SpitzIn this study, Spitz tried to understand the emotional trauma that children went through when their mothers are in prison. He actually went to the prisons and took notes and saw the faces of these children. The study was extreme, because in every case, the child was either underweight, severely depressed and overall very sad. In some cases, the children even died, not from lack of nutrition, but from lack of love. This study was extremely important in trying to detect child abuse cases. If people simply look at the faces of these children, they could tell immediately that something is wrong. The emotional state of a child is important in saving their lives.3. Dr. M. LewisLewis conducted a study that basically had to do with social emotion, self identity and embarrassment. The first study, a 16 month old child was places in front of a mirror, he was not interested and quickly walked away. Then rouge was placed on the nose, too see if the child noticed the change in appearance at all. Lewis saw that the child was just as disinterested in the mirror, meaning the child had no sense of identity or embarrassment yet. The second study included a 18 month old. These finding concluded that the child was defiantly embarrassed by the makeup on his nose. He smiled, looked down then walked away, he also touched his nose, indicating that he knew his appearance was altered. This study showed that at 16 months a child has no sense of embarrassment or social emotion, however at 18 month the child has gained a sense of the appropriate look and demeanor, and therefore can express embarrassment.
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