Liz Zulch, Julie WiliiamsE. Tronick1. The set-up of the first study was to ask the mother not to respond to her child when he tried to engage with her. The purpose was to study the child's reaction.2. (1.) the emotional dialogue enables the infant to control its emotions, it lets parents know how much stimulation the baby can withstand, and the "dance" between the mother and the child creates trust.(2) If the mother is unresponsive, the baby becomes upset, it will disengage, and looses control of bodily functions.(3) If the mother suffers from chronic depression, the child will experience neglect and disengagement.3. It is important because it shows that even at a very early age the emotions of the mother greatly influence and affect the child, and the child's development.R. Spitz1. The set-up of this study was to figure out if children were severely neglected, how would they interact. The purpose was to see if the therapy was valuable.2. (4) His findings were that the children suffered severe apathy, they lost weight, there eyes were full of complete grief, and some children even died. (5) This study is still used today because researchers now know that children like that need intervention as early as possible. And because a strong tie to an adult early on is essential to proper emotional growth.3. This study is greatly significant because it shows how emotions are affected in a clinical environment, when a close bond with one person isnt formed at an eary age, the child suffers great emotional trauma, and even death.Visual Cliff1. The experiment is designed to study at what ages children learn to fear heights, and to conclude if a fear of heights is inborn. The purpose is to study depth perception and its affects.2. (14) At one month of crawling they experience a biological switch, and they wont cross, but only when warned by a scared expression from their mother.(15) The parents are there to attempt to coax the baby to cross the visual cliff. At an early age, the decision of the child is primarily based on the parent.3. It shows how children will trust their parents emotions, and make judgements based on the trust with their parents
Russell, Jeremy TRONICK1. Setup: mother playing with her child. Purpose: To see what kind of bond the mother possesses between the child. 2. Findings: Strong bond, the responsiveness to the child dictates whether the child is interested or happy and the physical effect is crying or sadness. 3. The significance: If the child doesn't get the appropriate bonding time with the mother the child's emotional development will be affected negatively. SPITZ1. Setup: Spitz studied institutionalized babies whose mothers had been jailed. 2. Findings: That babies cried and often apathetic and some even died from the absence of their mother, even though biological means were met. 3. Significance: The study helped develop ways of clinical help toward infants today and help understand the separation of infants and their mothers. A strong bond is necessary for well being. VISUAL CLIFF1. Setup: The baby was placed on a plexiglass top and coerced into walking over the edge by the mother. Purpose was to see if the fear of heights was inborn or learned. 2. Findings: That kids just beginning to crawl showed no fear and willingly went over. The children crawling for one month showed fear. Also, that mother's facial features indicated danger it influenced their actions. 3. Significance: Shows that mother- child trust is greatly influential to the child's development.
Monica Celli and Gabriella SerioR. Spitz Study1. The set up of this study was when children of institutionalized mothers were observed while receiving medical help. The purpose of this was to show how the emotional tie with an adult is important to emotional development. 2. Children of institutionalized mothers who were in medical hospitals looked extremely greived and apathetic. They cried a lot, lost a lot of weight and some even died. 3. The study is significant because it showed that a strong tie with an adult is crucial to the infants physical, emotional and psychological development and well being. The adult must be able to see signs of greif.Dr. C. Izard1. The set up was to study a child's facial expressions and how they reflect their emotions and how these expressions show how the infant is feeling. The purpose was to find a coding system through facial expressions of the child. 2. He beleived facial expressions are the window to emotions, study emotions before child learns to hide them and beleived in Darwin's theory that innate emotions are linked to facial expressions. His coding system was that he divided the face into 3 sections; eyes, brows and mouth. The emotions he beleived could be coded are anger sadness joy disgust surprise fear and interest. 3. It's a way of understanding a baby's emotions before they learn to express their feeling through speech.
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